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  • 1.  Seeking a scale on belonging

    Posted 12-07-2023 19:39

    Can anyone point me to a validated (or even partially developed) scale on belonging in the workplace?  I just had a student ask me about this but have not found anything as of yet.  

    Clark Warner
    Boston U. Questrom School of Business
    Boston MA
    United States
    (617) 353-9826

  • 2.  RE: Seeking a scale on belonging

    Posted 12-09-2023 10:55


    Good question. I've done OB research for over 50 years and can't recall a specific belonging scale.

    My first thought is a definition of belonging would be useful 
    Second, my guess is belonging is closely related to cohesiveness.

    Perhaps one or more of these articles would be useful:

    Salas, E., Grossman, R., Hughes, A. M., & Coultas, C. W. (2015). Measuring Team Cohesion: Observations from the Science. Human Factors, 57(3), 365-374. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720815578267

    Macgowan MJ. The group engagement measure: a review of its conceptual and empirical properties. J Groups Addict Recover 2006;1:33–52

    Shadish WR. The validity of a measure of intimate behavior. Small Group Behav 1986;17:113–20.

    As you see, cohesiveness is relevant in a clinical as well as a work context.

    Third, perhaps beloning is related to commitment. I and a couple of colleagues have recently examined organization commitment measures. We learned at least two of most frequently used including the Allen and Meyer 3 factor one, are confounded with job satisfaction. More recently, Howard Klein and colleagues have developed a short, versatile scale that appears well-validated and has been employed in a number of studies including some outside the US. See:Klein, H.J., Cooper, J.T., Molloy, J.C., & Swanson, J.A. (2014). The assessment of commitment: advantages of a unidimensional, target-free approach.  Journal of applied psychology, 99 2, 222-38 

    I hope one or more of these are useful. 



    Thomas Stone
    Oklahoma State University
    Tulsa OK
    (918) 630-4679

  • 3.  RE: Seeking a scale on belonging

    Posted 12-09-2023 10:55
    Dear Clark,

    We have used a work group inclusion scale including belongingness and uniqueness in our ageing research. The reference is Chung, B. G., Ehrhart, K. H., Shore, L. M., Randel, A. E., Dean, M. A., & Kedharnath, U. (2020). Work group inclusion: Test of a scale and model. Group & Organization Management, 45(1), 75-102. Maybe you can check if this scale fits your needs.

    best wishes,

    Fangfang Zhang  PhD 

    Research Fellow 

    Centre for Transformative Work Design • Future of Work Institute • Faculty of Business and Law • Curtin University  

  • 4.  RE: Seeking a scale on belonging

    Posted 12-09-2023 13:30

    Hi Clark

    Here is a measure that colleagues and I developed a few years ago. It may not be exactly what you are looking for, but we discuss other, related measures in the paper. 




    Seth Kaplan
    George Mason University
    Fairfax VA
    (703) 993-8475

  • 5.  RE: Seeking a scale on belonging

    Posted 12-11-2023 18:05

    This review article covers quite a bit, including assessments, that might help you: Kelly-Ann Allen, Margaret L. Kern, Christopher S. Rozek, Dennis M. McInerney & George M. Slavich (2021) Belonging: a review of conceptual issues, an integrative framework, and directions for future research, Australian Journal of Psychology, 73:1, 87-102, DOI: 10.1080/00049530.2021.1883409

    Lisa Sansom
    LVS Consulting
    Kingston ON

  • 6.  RE: Seeking a scale on belonging

    Posted 12-11-2023 18:06

    Hi Clark,

    there is a sense of belonging subscale within the Psychological Sense of Community in the Workplace Scale (PSCW).

    Burroughs, S. & Eby, L. (1998). Psychological sense of community at work: A measurement system and explanatory framework. Journal of Community Psychology,  26(2), 509-532. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6629(199811)26:6<509::AID-JCOP1>3.0.CO;2-P

    I used this scale in previous research and gained Cronbach's Alpha >.85

    Hope this may help.



    Beatrice Schuldt
    Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster